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Some useful sources of practical help and advice are listed below that can be used to support mentoring.


The GROW Model (Whitmore, 2002)

The GROW Model emphasises growing people, performance and purpose, based on context, skills and sequence. It offers a useful structure for the mentoring dialogue.

For further information please see:  http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_89.htm.


Active Listening Skills

Active listening skills are an important aspect of the mentoring relationship - for both mentors and mentees. Active listening involves more than hearing the words that people say, it involves using other senses such as observations and emotions and being aware of barriers to good listening.

Information on empathy, trust and listening can be found at



Effective Questioning Skills

Effective questioning skills, particularly the use of open questions, are valuable in helping someone to achieve their potential or increase their self-awareness. For more information on open questions (and other types of questions) please see: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMC_88.htm.


Setting SMART Objectives

SMART objectives are Specific, Measurable, Achievable/Agreed, Realistic and Time-bound.

Further information can be found at:


For a useful planning template please see:



Academic/Pedagogic Mentoring

For advice on academic or pedagogic mentoring please see the UELT website at http://www.kent.ac.uk/teaching/qualifications/pgche/index.html.


Other approaches/models

Other approaches/models sometimes used in mentoring can include:

  • Neuro- Linguistic Programming (NLP) - Further information can be found at: http://www.businessballs.com/nlpneuro-linguisticprogramming.htm
  • Egan’s 3 Stage Model: The Skilled Helper (Egan, 2006) - this is a framework that helps to identify solutions and outcomes that are of value, and how to make them happen. The three stages are:
  1. What’s going on?
  2. What solutions make sense for me?
  3. How do I get what I need or want?  

Further information can be found at:


  • The Johari Window (Ingham and Luft)- further information can be found at: http://www.businessballs.com/johariwindowmodel.htm.
  • A non-directive approach for example, using Roger’s Core Conditions of empathy, congruence and unconditional positive regard. This approach is also commonly used in counselling. For further information please see: http://www.personcentredapproachsw.org/pages/pc.php
  • The Inner Game (Gallwey, 2000).- this model is based on the premise that changed actions (the “outer game”) will only be possible through changes of thinking and feeling (the “inner game”). Further information can be found at: http://theinnergame.com


References including books and electronic journals


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